After the hearing relating to Molla was concluded in the morning session, the court in the afternoon continued with the charge-framing application relating to Motiur Rahman Nizami that had started the previous afternoon. The prosecution continued reading out the charge application: below is the section that was read out on 'auxiliary' groups. This follows on from this hearing.
Anti Liberation Organization Jamaat-e Islami
On 26th August 1951 with the naming “Jamaat-e Islami hind” a mother organization was established in Bangladesh. The main founder was Syed Abul A’la Maududi (1903-79). Publishing different essays, he presented confusing and uncertain lecture about establishing “Hukomote Illaiya” or “Allah’s Kingdom”.
During the British war of independence opposing, weird and perfectly planned lectures couldn’t create any appeal. After that the proposal (1940) of different land for the Muslims by the Muslim League Lahore was accepted, in Maududi’s soul according to his own language a terrible era started. At that situation he wanted to establish his own organization. Being the editor of “Turjamanul Quran” he had lots of connections with many readers. From them he invited 150 people to take part in establishing discussion. From 25th August till 28th of 1941 75 people attended the discussion which took place at the office of Turjanamul Quran in Lahore. After the introduction speech Jamaat-e Islami Hind was formed on 26th August. Maududi became its Amir. With 16 members he formed the Mujlish-e-shura or central commitee. The power was given to the Amir of the group. On 28th August in the accepted constitutional rules it was said that member or rukun of the Jamayat has to take new Iman for the candidate post and for that he has to read the Kalima-i-Shahadat. The main aim was to declare that the movement of achieving independence of India and geographical nationality under the leadership of the Congress and Muslim League was Anti-Islamic and in close relation to the silent ruling of the British power. Because “Worshipping the Motherland” is “Kufr and Shirk” according to the saying of the group. On evaluating Jamaat-e-Islami Hind’s positioning during this era, it can be said that in the name of Qur’an and Islam, Jamaat in essence became an opposition to the struggle of the Indian people, Hindu and Muslim alike.
With the blind religious zealotry and communal rhetoric, the greed for power of Moududi and contradictory statements; the organization, disconnected from realities, not only was it unable to gain a foothold as an organization, it couldn’t even play any significant role up until 1947.
Jamaat-e-Islam had flourished as an organization in Pakistan. Although it had its founding principles and declarations ordinarily in place, Jamaat’s activities in Pakistan through declaration of a 4 point demand for the establishment of the Islamic state by the Qur’an and Sunnah had started from March, 1948.
Right after his release from prison on March 28, 1950 it was Moududi who focused all the efforts for the demand of Islamisation of the state. During this time there were no statements from him or from Jamaat regarding the questions of autonomy of East Bengal, the state language, the equity of the two regions, or on the recommendations of the principle committee. The “Rukon Shommelon” (conference of leaders of the party) was held in Lahore on 21st of November, 1951. Besides the 22 point demand of the Ulema, Moududi declared a further 9 point demand.
During a conference comprising of 31 Ulemas on the 18th of January, 1953, Moududi made a frightening revelation of an issue. “He demanded Islam’s Ahmediya sect, known as the Kadiyanis, to be declared non-muslims”. There was consensus on this issue amongst the Ulema beforehand. They had even raised this issue in a conference in 1952, but Moududi had demanded that it be made a constituent of the state. He spread ultra religious zealotry and communal beliefs and along the pre-declared 22 point demands added three more: 1) Declaration of Kadiyanis as Non-Muslim minorities, 2) The sacking of the Kadiyai foreign minister, Jafrullah Khan, and 3) Removal of all Kadiyanis from government posts.
Moududi used the recommendations of the Ulema conference to establish himself and Jamaat-e-Islam. Through large-scale publicity of a book named The Kadiyani Problem, he had created massive communal unrest all over Pakistan within a very short time. Due to this publicity by Moududi, from the end of February 1953, communal riots started to occur, and in the first week of March hundreds of Kadiyani Muslims tragically succumbed to their deaths. During this time Moududi had given speeches at numerous public gatherings in Lahore and other areas, and as a result, especially in Panjab, the killings took a frightening look. Worthy of mention, Moududi and Jamaat had termed these inhuman riots as a struggle of the people against the government.
Due to the ongoing riots actively supported by Moududi and Jamaat, Martial Law was declared in Lahore on the 6th of March, 1953. Moududi was arrested on the 28th of March. Accused of the Kadiyani Problem book, speeches given during different times to incite communal hatred and clashes, and instigation to revolt against the government, the Military government ordered Moududi to be hanged, including two Jamaat leaders who were also sentenced to imprisonment with hard labor. On request of Muslim countries in the Middle East for them to be tried in the civil court, the government had declared a 14 year prison term with hard labor instead of death by hanging.
In the meantime, Jamaat-e-Islam was not yet able to get a foothold as an organization in East Pakistan. Amongst the Bengalis, Moulana Abdur Rahim was involved from the very beginning. To establish Jamaat in this region, one Rofi Ahmed Indori was sent from West Pakistan (May, 1948). With the efforts of Rofi and Rahim, with only four members, the regional Jamaat was formed. In 1951, Maulana Abdur Rahim was given responsibilities as Amir. The joining of Professor Golam Azam of Rangpur’s Carl Michael College in effect worked to establish Jamaat in East Bengal. In 1954 he joined as “Muttafiq” or Associate Member. In November 1956 he was appointed as Jamaat’s regional secretary. At this time Maulana Abdur Rahim held the post of Amir.
Opposition of a central force and autonomous rule over the interests of Bengalis, equitability of the two regions, and establishment of a unit, i.e. establishment of a province within West Pakistan as well as placing arguments for a separate election was his main objective.
Like the ones in power, he too discovered the possibility of destruction of the unity of Pakistan in the demands for autonomy.
Maududi had also spoken attacking the demands of Awami League Jukta Front led by Maulana Bhashani for the arrangement of an election. Terming this democratic demand as instigation in its entirety by the Hindus, he had said that as a result of this Hindus would be the real controllers of the balance of state power and that Muslims would become subservient to the Hindus. In elaboration Maududi said, in the current state of two elections, Hindus are only winning 70 seats. A unified election, if put in place, the number of seats for them would increase to 142 and as a result power would then go to the hands of the Hindus. Since the total number of seats in this region was 309.
With an aim to instigate communal conflict, Maududi had come to East Bengal on February, 1958 on a long 50 day tour. But this time he had to face stiff resistance. At Rangpur, he wasn’t even allowed to get off the train; he was also attacked at different areas by the Bengali population. Every public gathering was thwarted. Except for the three day regional conference, he wasn’t able to give his usual speeches. Moududi however did not shy away from his ultra communal rhetoric. He had continued his publicity efforts till the 7th of October 1958 when Martial Law was declared.
With the objective of protecting the unified Pakistan and Islam and with a policy to resist Bengali Nationalism and communism, Jamaat had participated in the elections of 1970. It is worthy to mention that owing to the policy of Pakistan People’s Party established by Bhutto, Jamaat had identified it as anti-Islamic.
Despite widespread publicity and spending a huge amount of money, Jamaat had to suffer a devastating defeat in the elections. Amongst the 200 candidates that it had put up throughout Pakistan, only 4 candidates were elected as members in the General Assembly in West Pakistan. In most of the seats in East Pakistan, Jamaat’s desposits were lost. In one of the seats in Dhaka, the regional Amir, Professor Gulam Azam was defeated by a margin of over 80 thousand votes.
After the start of the liberation war, the leaders of religion based parties took the side of undivided Pakistan. A portion of them were directly involved in the activities to protect Pakistan. They helped and supported the Pakistani armed forces and leadership in efforts to sustain the undivided Pakistan, opposing the liberation war, and opposing pro-liberation individuals, forces, groups, and organizations. Jamaat-e-Islami and its East Pakistan Amir Golam Azam played a leading role in these types of activities. From the very beginning Jamaat-e-Islam expressed their support to the mass-killings of Bengalis by the Pakistan Army. Gulam Azam was one of the leading figures to have assured their support for the army in a meeting with Tikka Khan on the 4th of April. He also played an important role in the formation of the Peace Committee on the 10th of April. Gulam Azam became one of the most prominent members in the Central Peace Committee. Owing to having an organization in the grass-roots level, Jamaat’s leadership in the Peace Committee was established. Jamaat’s leader, Khulna’s A.K.M. Yousuf was the first founder of the Razakar force. Jamaat led the Razakar forces everywhere including Dhaka. The Al Badr force was formed with selected leaders and members of Jamaat’s student organization, Chhatro Shongho under the supervision of Jamaat. This group played a leading role in mass-murder and destruction alongside the Pakistan government and the army. Emphasizing the need for establishing connections between the army and peace committee, Gulam Azam said that the responsibility of protecting the country should be left to the army and the responsibility for explanations to the people of this country should be left to the Peace Committee. In a joint statement the group’s General Secretary, Abdul Khaleque and Joint Secretary, Mohammad Shafiullah called for the uprooting of anti-Pakistanis. This group along with its student organization Islami Chhatro Shongho played a leading role in running the training camps of Razakar and Al Badr. In regular inspection visits, Jamaat’s leaders made several statements opposing the liberation war. Jamaat-e-Islam participated in the voter-less sub-election held in September 1971 and the party’s Abbas Ali Khan was appointed as Minister of Education, and Khulna’s Maulana A.K.M. Yousuf the treasury, and stand in Minister for Infrastructure, Energy, and Agriculture in Dr. Malik’s cabinet.
On the 17th of September, Gulam Azam along with Jamaat’s labor and social welfare secretary and Tejgaon thana’s Peace Committee’s liaison officer- Mahabubur Rahman, and Commander in Chief of the Razakar forces- Mohammad Younus came for inspection to the Al Badr headquarter and Razakar’s training camp at Mohammadpur Physical training center. Ordering the workers of Jamaat to join the Razakar he said, Jamaat’s workers are bound to protect the country by joining the Razakar.in numbers. Because they know, “Bangladesh cannot be a place for Islam and Muslims”. At an exhibition on “In Memory of Qayede Azam” at Karzon Hall speaking to the leadership of Islami Chatro Shongho regarding the formation of the Al Badr force he said, “Just like the struggle to establish Pakistan, today again a force is needed to protect Pakistan. The force of Islami Chatro Shongho’s workers will be able to establish the permanence of Qayede Azam’s glorious Pakistan”. With this Jamaat-e-Islami under the orders of their Amir played an active role in building the Peace Committee, Razakar and Al Badr. Jamaat publicized the war to sustain Pakistan as a war to protect Islam. In parallel to this the President of Chatro Shongho- Matiur Rahman Nizami also through inspections of different Razakar camps, and through speeches at different public gatherings publicized the war for the protection of Pakistan as a war to protect Islam.
From the beginning of the liberation war to its end, Jamaat supported the Military junta. To support them, along with Jamaat, other religious right-wing zealots first formed the Peace Committee. Later the armed forces of Razakar and Al Badr was formed and gained the recognition of the government. Publicizing the war as a religious war, they tried to create ultra religious madness. And behind the scenes with the help of the army, they conducted inhuman mass-murder, pillaging, torture of women, kidnapping, and murder. And as the sun was rising on Independence, they killed the conscious of the people, innocent and unarmed intellectuals.
During the liberation war different groups of the Muslim League organized well and strongly opposed, the leaders of the groups, Khwaja Khoir Uddin (Coucil Muslim League), Fazlul Quader Chowdhury (Convention Muslim League) and Quazi Abdul Quader (Quayum faction of Muslim League). The student workers of this group were prominent in the Asshams force. On March 25th while organizing the Peace Committee in West Pakistan, Quazi Quader gave a statement supporting the mass-killings. Returning to East Pakistan, he played an active role in opposing the liberation. The joint President of the party A.S.M. Solaiman rejected the existence of the war of liberation terming it an Indian propaganda. Convention Muslim League’s regional President and General Secretary namely Shamsul Huda and A.S.M. Yousuf in a joint statement ordered everyone to form Peace Committees in their respective areas. Also, touring the entire province they ordered the uprooting of active liberation workers. From the very beginning of the liberation war, Convention Muslim Leagues Fazlul Quader Chowdhury directly opposed the liberation war and conducted activities of torture including murder. Muslim League leader Khoir Uddin was the number one leader of the Peace Committee. On the 4th of April, he along with another leader of Muslim League, Shafiqul Islam met with Tikka Khan and requested the formation of Citizens Committee. With this backdrop in that very month the Peace Committee was formed. General Secretary of the Quayum faction of the Muslim League, Khan A. Sobur in a speech on 5th April wholeheartedly praised the army’s campaign. On the 21st of the same month the party’s joint President in as speech commented that East Pakistanis would protect every inch of the motherland with their lives. Along with statements and comments opposing the liberation war, they also joined Razakar and Al shams and played a part in the mass murder. Besides taking a stance against the war of liberation in the country, Muslim league leader Shah Azizur Rahman also represented Pakistan in publicity against the liberation war in the outside world.
The Pakistan Democratic Party also took a stance opposed to the liberation war from the very beginning. A group led by the President of the party, Nurul Amin met Tikka Khan on the 5th of April and the Peace Committee was formed under this leadership. On 5th May his radio address was broadcasted from the Radio Dhaka center. At the same time their joint President Maulavi Farid Ahmed gave a speech. A 140 member Peace Committee was formed with the only winning party candidate in the 1970 elections, Nurul Amin, as President. Besides London, and America he also led as Pakistan’s representative at the United Nations General Assembly. On the 7th of December 1971 after the formation of the coalition government, Nurul Amin was made Pakistan’s Prime Minister. In a speech he strongly said, it is our faith and belief, till the end of the World Pakistan will survive.
Forming a steering committee named East Pakistan Peace and Welfare Council and re-instating trust amongst the peace protection population and terming freedom fighters as Indian insurgents they started to work on effective resistance against them. Besides the Peace Committee, many from this party became members of Razakar and Al Shams. A.S.M. Solaiman of the Farmers and Labor party as the chief middleman and as member of Dr. Malik’s cabinet opposed the liberation war. In addition Jamiyate Olemae Islam and Dorodi Shongho played a role opposing the liberation war.
Islami Chatro Shongho
Islami Jamiate Talaba was formed on the 23rd of December, 1947 in Lahore. This party started work in East Pakistan by the name of Islami Chatro Shongho from 1950. Al Badr was formed comprising the workers of this group. This organization was principally connected with Maulana Madudi. Besides this other parties worthy of mention were Nation Student Federation, Jamaate Talabae Arabia, Youth League amongst other student organizations.
In September 1971, Matiur Rahman Nizami was the President of the greater Pakistan Islami Chatro Shongho and on October 1971, Ali Ahsan Mohammad Muzahid was the President of East Pakistan Islami Chatro Shongho. Prior to this he was the General Secretary of East Pakistan Islami Chatro Shongho.
After the initial ending of Operation Search Light on 4th April 1971, with a 12 member team led by PDP’s (Pakistan Democratic Party) President Nurul Amin met the “Kha” regions Military Administrator Lt. Gen. Tikka Khan, the Peace Committee came into being. Amongst others the team comprised of Professor Gulam Azam, Maulavi Farid Ahmed, Khwaja Khoir Uddin, A.Q.M. Shafiqul Islam, and Maulan Nuruzzamann. They supported the military operations including the mass-murder on the 25th of March by the Pakistan Army and provided assurance on supporting the Military Administration in bringing back complete normality. In addition to remove any fear and anxiety amongst the people, they proposed the formation of Citizen’s Committee in Dhaka. Welcoming their support, Tikka Khan talked about giving no refuge to “trouble-makers and anti-social elements and providing information to the army about them”. At the end of the meeting, the leadership promised support for the Military Administration through speech on radio.
Led by the former foreign minister of Pakistan, Hamidul Haque Chowdhury, Jamaat leader Professor Gulam Azam, Pir Mohsen Uddin, A.T. Sadi among others met Tikka Khan again on the 8th of April. Again they provided assurance in their support for the Pakistan Government. Throughout the 9 month long war of liberation, Hamidur Rahman’s house as well as the Observer Office owned by him was the meeting places for the Army personnel. The places were frequently visited by Rao Forman Ali, Brigadier Quasem, Brigadier Siddique, and Major Khaleque. At one stage on the 9th of April, a 140 member “Dhaka Citizen’s Committee” was formed. Muslim League’s Khwaja Khoir was nominated as its convenor. In addition, this committee was given the rights to form similar committees on unions and community levels in larger Dhaka. It was declared that other Peace Committees in the city would be working under the Central Committee.
The Peace Committee decided to hold a procession from Baitul Mukarram to Chawk Bazar on the 13th of April. For the first time in public view, the Biharis, and the ones opposed to the liberation, took out a procession with a band party, Pakistani flags, banners, festoons etc. At the front of the procession were Khwaja Khoir Uddin the convenor of the Peace Committee, Gulam Azam, Shafiqul Islam, Mohsin Uddin, Syed Azizul Haque, Mahmud Ali, Abdul Jabbar Qadr, and A.T. Sadi among others. After the procession, the participants started the murder spree by lighting some houses of Bengalis on fire, as well as chasing and killing of many Bengalis and leaving them lying on the streets.
In a meeting on 14th April, the name of the Peace Committee was changed to “East Pakistan central Peace Committee”. In addition to increase the pace of activities, a 21 member working committee was formed. The central office of the Peace Committee was set up on the then Elephant Lane.
The Liaison offices were the main centers for the Peace Committees activities in Dhaka city. Identifying and supplying the names of pro-liberation Bengalis across Dhaka to the Pakistan Army at the Cantonment was this committee’s main task. Members of the Pakistan army also made frequent visits to these liaison offices. Some of these liaison offices were open 24 hours a day to be used as torture cells for captured Bengalis. The liaison office of Nakhalpara was headed by Mahbubur Rahman Gurha. The main executioner of the killing of the intellectuals, Ashrafuzzaman Khan frequently visited this office.
The Peace Committee started its activities through holding of meetings, processions, and encouragement of terrorist activities. With instructions, assistance, and supervision from the central committee, committees were formed on a Zila, Mohakuma, thana and Union levels very rapidly. The members of the Peace Committee took part in the most brutal cold-blooded mass-killings in a well planned manner. In addition to direct murder, torture of women, looting, and destructive activities, they also formed supporting forces of Razakar, Al Badr, Asshams etc. After the killings they caused destruction by annexing the properties of the dead and through cruelty. To garner praise from the Military government, they conducted torture and killing activities and by creating an environment of religious madness they spread fear and anxiety. Through different speeches and statements, the Peace Committee leadership encouraged these sorts of killings and torture. During a gathering of Dhaka Union Peace Committee, Muslim League leader Md. Sirajuddin was nominated as President of Dhaka city’s Peace Committee. Mahbubur Rahman Gurha was elected as joint President and Md. Mansur Ali was elected as General Secretary. In a discussion meeting at Dhaka University’s Karzon Hall on the occasion of Pakistan’s independence day on 14th August, Jamaat leader and member of the Central Peace Committee Gulam Azam called for the patriotic people to help the Peace Committee by “finding out the enemies in every home”.
The activities of the Peace Committee was made even more clear in the minutes of the meeting held on the 9th of August 1971 in Mohammadpur by the committee’s side organization the non-separation of Pakistan and harmony protection committee. The minutes are as follows:
1. Urdu should be made the only state language and made a compulsory subject at school. Signboards, number plates and name in Bengali to be removed and instead of the Sanskrit like Bengali letters Roman letters must be used.
2. The apostate Kazi Nazrul Islam whose sons have Hindu Bengali names his essays must be rejected along with the Bengali literature and culture influenced by Hindu religion.
3. 50% should be spent on Urdu programs on Radio and Television for in East Pakistan
4. Anti-Pakistanis (like pro-Israeli devoid of character, enemy of Islam, Edward Kennedy) would not be allowed to enter our holy land.
5. A 24 hour surveillance should be in place for the sympathizers towards Bangladesh amongst the government officials, intellectuals and businesspersons (later they should be tried in military courts and executed)
6. In the national interest Bengali officers should be removed from top positions for two years.
7. Hindu properties should be liquidated to pay the salaries of the Razakar forces and the Peace Committee’s expenditures.
8. The relief fund for the victims of the devastating cyclone must be used to help the West Pakistanis affected by the separatists and for its distribution amongst Urdu speaking original Pakistanis.
The Peace Committee’s last public procession was held on the 29th of November. The procession was led by Khwaja Khoir Uddin, Barrister Akhtar Uddin, Professor Gulam Azam, Maulana Ashraf Ali, Major (Retd.) Afsar Uddin, Arjuman. Realizing the defeat of Pakistan in the liberation war the Central Peace Committee became inactive. Although through Al Badr, Jamaat took part in the intellectual killings the following month.
Since, during the period of liberation war, with the help and supervision of ultra fundamentalist political parties, the Razakar force were created. Jamaat leader Maulana A.K.M. Yousuf established the first Razakar force with 96 Jamaat workers at the Ansar camp situated at Khan Jahan Ali Road of Khulna on May, 1971.
Gradually, the razak forces were created in other places as well. The Pakistani Army primarily used them to make their movement safe in the country, to watch movements, locations and activities of freedom fighters.
Later on 28th May 1971, Tikka Khan, the Lieutenant General, the Governor of East Pakistan, enacted the East Pakistan Razakars Ordinance, No.X of 1971, replacing Ansar Act 1948. By that ordinace Ansar force were abolished and all of its properties and liabilities handed over to the Razakar force.
Adjutants of Ansars were appointed as adjutants of Razakar force and Ansar officers became Razakar officers. It was said that in accordance with law, all able person in East Pakistan will be trained up, armed and be admitted to Razakar force.
Razakars were trained up under the supervision of Pakistani Army. The field near Arts Faculty of Dhaka University and Mohammadpur Physical Institute field were the training grounds of Razakars. The duration of training was two weeks. After the training the razakars used to be given ‘three naught three’ rifles. With the help of Police the Razakar force were engaged to ensure security, countering infiltrators and to guard important places and bridges. They used to receive monthly allowance. In the beginning, Islami Chatra Shangha advised their activists to join Razakar force to fight in practical field. However, because different groups with negative thinking joined the force, the force lost its character.
On the 22nd of April, Mohammad Ashraf Hossain started Al Badr activities in Jamalpur. On 15th May, 1971 in a regional session of Chatro Shongho a proposal was passed to form a separate Razakar force with Jamaat workers. Having had practical experience on the battle field for one and a half months, the young Major of the 31st Baluch Regiment, Riyad Hossain Malik believed with conviction that from now on the Razakar forces could not be completely relied on.
As a result, without any official permission from the high-command and with quite a risk he separated the students of the Chatro Shongho. On the 16th of May, 1971 in Sherpur (in Mymensing Zila) he gave them a summary military training. Then the number of Chatro Shongho workers was 47. The name of the first Al Badr commander was Kamran. He was then a student of Inter Science.
Regarding Al Badr, and Al shams, and Al-Muzahid, Mohiuddin Chowdhury wrote in SUN SET AT MIDDAY “The activist belonging to purely Islami Chatto Shango were called Al Badar, the general patriotic public belonging to Jamaat-e-Islami, Muslim League, Nizam-e-islam etc. were called Al Shams and Urdu speaking generally known as Bihari were called Al-Mujahid”. Hossain Haqqani in the book Pakistan-Between Mosque and Military wrote “The army decided to raise a razakaar (volunteer) force of one hundred thousand from the civilian non Bengalis settled in East Pakistan and the pro-Pakistan Islamic groups. The jamaat-e-Islami and specially its students wing, the Islami Jamiat-e-Talaba (IJT), joint the military’s efforts in may 1971 to launch, two paramilitary counterinsurgency units. The IJT provided a large number of recruits. By September, a force of fifty thousand razakaars had been raised. Secular West Pakistani Politicians complained about ‘‘an army of Jamaat-e Islami nominees.’’ the two special brigades of Islamist cadres were named Al-Shams (the sun, in Arabic) and Al-Badar (the moon). The names were significant for their symbolic value. Islam’s first battle, under Prophet Muhammad, had been the battle of Badar, and these paramilitary brigades saw themselves as the sun and the crescent of Islamic revival in South Asia. General Niazi, Commander of Pakistan’s eastern command, later explained the role of the Razakaars.
This force took active part in killing of freedom seeking Bengalis especially the intellectuals. There is proof of direct communication between them and the Pakistan army. Military training was given to the Al Badr forces by the Pakistan Military. The training lasted for 7-12 days. The training provided the learning of skills to use light automatic weapons, dismantling them, carrying them from one place to another, explosives, defusing mines, and understanding wireless communications. On the ground, training was provided for the following weapons to Al Badr mujahids in different places. Bara Bargun, three naught three, light mortar gun, anti-aircraft gun, hand grenade, mines, revolver, and Indian and Russian weapons were seized from the freedom fighters. (1. Mehwar, Punjab University Magazine).
The aiding of Al Badr is mentioned in the notes of the governor’s advisor Major General Rao Forman Ali. However this was never accepted officially by the government. Right after the formation of Razakar, Al Badr forces, the education institutions fell into the hands of Islami Chatro Shongho and these were used as training and torture centers. They celebrated Pakistan’s Azadi day on 14th of August with fanfare and gathering. Because the activities of Al-Badr force were controlled by Jamaat-e-Islami, the other political parties vehemently protested that. Under the control of Jamaat-e-Islam, the Islami Chatra Shangha portrayed leaders and activists of secular political parties, members of minority communities (Hindu, Boudha, Christian), farmers, labors, students, intellectuals, artists, authors and members of pro liberation families as enemies of Pakistan and miscreants and encouraged through speeches and statements to uproot them.
On the 26th of March 1971, with the declaration of independence by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the liberation movement was started. Jamaat-e-Islam along with other right-wing parties took a stance opposing the struggle for freedom, and initially met with the then Pakistan government, the armed forces and the administration and provided their support in principle. On the advice of the armed forces of the then Pakistan Government they formed the Citizen’s Peace Committee on the 9th of April, 1971 with 140 members in the name of establishing peace. In continuation they started their activities through forming of peace committees in different parts of East Pakistan. Through direct efforts of the central peace committee activities went on including the formation of peace committees in different parts of East Pakistan. Evaluating the activities of the members of the peace committee and the committees, proof was found in the news of necessary steps taken for the formation of peace committees on a Mohkuma and Union level. For easing the task of Peace Committee, the military ruling authority provided for them Khulna Office transport, telecommunication, etc. along with other facilities and for the purpose of general overseeing/observation – and this is clearly indicated by analyzing the news. They also formed teams of volunteers to capture the traitors and trouble makers. It has been known through the press that the military administration has appointed a magistrate and a military officer to inspect the Peace Committee office and to provide solutions on spot against complains/requirements from the general people. At that time, apart from the leaders of the Central Peace Committee, Governor of East Pakistan and administrator of ‘B’ Area Lieutenant General Tikka Khan met with the Peace Committee of Rangpur in a meeting. He also praised them a lot for their effort of evicting the trouble-makers and for maintaining the peace. In an indoor meeting with retired military officers, the Central Peace Committee called for unity against the enemies of Pakistan. On the other side, the members of Peace Committee through gatherings and meetings called the citizens to help them in all sorts to destroy the trouble-makers and for the safety of Pakistan. When the action plans of the Peace Committee was continuing, spokesman of Jamat-e-Islami in an editorial of ‘The Daily Sangram’ mentioned that, our army is always alert and ready. By maintaining interactions with them, the dominance of the troublemakers must be destroyed. With the permission of the military administration, and with the necessary weapons, guerilla tactics should be used to destroy the troublemakers by forming rural protection forces under the Peace committee, just like those elements who are trying to disrupt the peace in the country in the guerilla warfare. Against the backdrop of these provocative statements, the General Secretary of the Peace Committee of Putia thana, on behalf of the Peace Committee of Putia thana, arrested 5 troublemakers, and handed over boxes filled with bullets, rifles, revolvers and other arms after recovering them from deep under water.
This is how leaders of Jamaat along with other political parties through different statements given in different meetings of the Peace Committee energized their activities. In a Central Peace Committee meeting in Sylhet, the Amir of Sylhet Jamaat-e Islami- Shamsul Haque called for the formation of Peace Committees in every union and uprooting of troublemakers. The continuation of torture and killings by the Peace Committee members, with the blessings of the leaders of military and non-military personnel along with Jamaat and other right-wing political parties, was made clearly evident in a sub-editorial column of The Daily Sangram titled, “The Peace Committee’s responsibilities and significance” which said “in some places the Peace Committee has become synonymous to Turmoil Committee”. For this situation- the lack of centralization of the Peace Committee and the sprouting up of sporadic Peace Committees based on the needs of the armed forces is to be blamed. It is because of this that what is needed most today is a single minded Peace Committee with the needed number of un-adulterated Razakar forces under the authority of this Committee. The Peace Committee and the Razakar forces are enough to keep the 5th Regiment in check. Jamaat leader Maulana A.K.M. Yousuf established the first Razakar force with 96 Jamaat workers at the Ansar camp situated at Khan Jahan Ali Road of Khulna on May, 1971. Razakar employment started from within the Peace Committee. In a meeting presided over by the convener of Islampur union Peace Committee, Mr. Mobarak Hossain, news proof was found of the formation of a Razakar force with 25 members from each unit. Just prior to this, Pakistan’s Governor and the Head of the Military Administration Lt. General Tikka Khan, informed the members in a tour of meetings of the Peace Committee Chuadanga, Natore, and Rajshahi that Razakar are being formed and trained to help the law enforcement agencies take appropriate action against 11000 individuals (sentenced and on trial) who were gradually released in March from different prisons.
This is how after forming Razakar, along with the Pakistan military, together they continued the killing of freedom fighters and the torture and killing of unarmed innocent Bengalis. The then commander of the Eastern Command and “Kha” region’s Assistant Administrator of the Military Administration, Lt. General A.K. Niazi witnessed the Razakars who were training in Mymnesingh’s Haluaghat, which is mentioned in a newspaper report with pictures. He also had meetings with the local Razkar and Peace Committee in Sherpur. In the same manner, Niazi met with the Peace Committee and Razakar in Tangail as well. At Domar, the captain of the Eastern Command and the Assistant Administrator of the Military Administration, Lt. General A.A.K. Niazi gave a speech addressing the members of the Peace Committee. At the program, the local captain informed Niazi that Al Badr and Al-Shams are conducting various operations individually as well as along with the military. In a sub-editorial published in the “Daily Sangram” headlined “The responsibility of Razakar and Patriots” it is mentioned that “although these trouble-makers had become desperate as a result of employing the Razakar, in deep rural areas where Razakar armies had not been established, they still held sway. We believe that to remove these trouble-makers from the deep areas of this region, the best solution is to form Razakar armies through trustworthy individuals in the respective areas. In a separate sub-editorial in the “Daily Sangram”, it is mentioned that “during these troubled times for our Nation, the duties that our regular Army is playing in the defense and unity of our Nation, is followed by the Razakar in second place. The future of this nation hinges heavily on the two branches of Razakar- Al Badr and Al Shams. It is of paramount importance to supply the patriotic Razakar with more powerful weaponry to suppress the armed trouble-makers.
The proof that the opponents to the struggle for freedom- the army, civilian, and political authorities were connected together in a single string is found in a news article in the Daily Sangram, titled “The oath taking ceremony of Al Badr of Khulna held”- “Members of the Peace Committee, and Khulna’s Deputy Commissioner along with many high-ranking military and civilian employees were present at the oath taking ceremony of Khulna’s newly formed Al-Badr force. It is worth mentioning that everywhere in the former East Pakistan; the oath of Razakar was taken by the respective leaders of the Peace Committee. Former East Pakistan’s Labor and Social Welfare Minister, A.S.M. Solaiman commented that the Razkars should be termed as national heroes. Also, the Finance Minister of former East Pakistan informed of a plan to increase the Razakar by 1 hundred thousand and the deployment of sufficient numbers of Razakar in every union. Above all, it was acknowledged by the government from Rawalpindi that the Razakar force members currently employed are well trained, well decorated and a force committed to serving the country. From a party level, the Amir of East Pakistan Jamaat-e Islami, Professor Gulam Azam termed the so called “freedom fighters” as “enemy fighters” and he too recommended the increase in the number of Razakar to the President- General A.M. Yahya Khan. In a statement he said that no good Muslim can be a supporter of the so called “Bangladesh struggle”. He stated that Razakar are doing a very good job.
In the 14th September, 1971 edition of the Daily Sangram it is mentioned in a news story titled “Al Badr” that right after the landing of the Pakistan Army at Jamalpur on the 22nd of April, 1971, an Al Badr army was formed under the leadership of the President of Islami Chatro Shongho of Momenshahi Zila, Mohammad Ashraf Hossain. Al Badr is a name, a wonder, where there is the so called “Freedom Fighters”, there is “Al Badr”. Wherever there are troublemakers, Al Badr is there. To the Indian spies and the border trespassers, the facing of Al Badr is like facing Azrail (the angel of Death)- this is how the words are represented in the Daily Sangram. Like the Al Badr, the already established Peace Committee, and the Razakar forces; Jamaat-e Islami and its student organization, Islami Chatro Shongho organized themselves and conducted their activities nationwide with the blessings of the former East Pakistan military, i.e. the Government and the group.
In the papers of that time it is mentioned that the Al Shams force is trained by the army and is in effect working under its authority. It is mentioned in the newspapers that they used to conduct operations to kill Indian spies and all other operations. During those times there are many mentions of activities of Badr and Al Shams forces. They used to hold meetings and gatherings in different areas. The President of the former East Pakistan’s Islami Chhatro Shongho, Al Mujahid as head of Al Badr called for the citizens of the Nation to resist the Hindustan aggression in a public gathering organized by the Al-Badr forces at the Baitul Mukarram premises.
Everyone from the leadership of Jamaat-e Islami and Chatro Shongho combined created provocations to kill and torture freedom aspiring and unarmed people in the name of holy religion and with the excuse of unity of Pakistan. Some samples of the provocative speeches are mentioned as follows-
In a statement at Lahore, the Amir of Pakistan Jamaat-e Islami, Maulana Abul A’la Moududi said, when an Islamic country is attacked by a Non-Muslim country, then Jihad becomes obligatory for every able Muslim including for Muslims on visit residing in that country. Praising the bravery of students’ attitude, he advised them to join the forces.
Following the sequence of this statement, the Amir of East Pakistan Jamaat-e Islami Professor Gulam Azam said in Lahore, “We will live together, and we will die together in the Jihad to maintain the unity of Pakistan in the face of Indian aggression”. In the same way in Rawalpindi he proposed a three point proposal. The three point proposal was:-
1. Attack India from West Pakistan
2. Furbish sufficient weapons for the patriots of East Pakistan
3. Establish complete trust on them.
The President of the then unified Pakistan Matiur Rahman Nizami in the same manner said, “Pakistan is the name of an ideology. And that ideology is Islam. With blood we will prove that no foreign spy can attack the mainland of Pakistan.” He also said, we will pounce on India like a Lion and diminish their cravings for war for good. In the same manner, in a separate gathering organized by Chhatro Shongho at Dhaka Aliya Madrasa, Matiur Rahman Nizami declared unequivocally that only Pakistan’s patriotic youth can effectively eliminate the armed Indian infiltrators and their local agents who are trying to destroy the nation’s economy through terrorism.
In the same manner, the President of the Eastern province of Pakistan’s Islami Chattro Shongho in a statement called for the nation’s youth community to stand up against the Hindustani attacks. He called for every activist of Chattro Shangha to be ready with preparations to protect every inch of Pakistani land.
It has to be mentioned that proof can be found in the papers published during that time about how the Peace Committee, Razakar, Al Badr, Al Shams, and the Mujahid forces formed by the right-wing parties including Jamaat-e Islami conspired together and in 1971, in the names of Indian spies, trouble-makers, India’s agents etc., killed, tortured, expelled hundreds of thousands of innocent unarmed people all with the blessings of the East Pakistan army, i.e. the Government and as organizations from Jamaat-e Islami and its student organization Islami Chhatro Shongho.
Crime against humanity in the whole Bangladesh during 1971’s War of independence.
That, trying to stave off the war of independence, occupying Pakistan Junta Military force with the help of their allies, under the intention of seizing the state power, committed many crimes regardless of town-cities, rural areas, freedom-fighters and freedom-aspirant groups in Bangladesh. They murdered, raped, robbed, burned, tortured, etc, heinously and didn’t exclude any class of people. They also committed every sorts of crimes against International law, humanity and peace, mass-killing, of war, breaking of Geneva Convention, etc. 30 lakhs of people were killed, 1 crore of people took refuge in neighboring countries, 2-4 lakhs of women were raped through barbaric torture of occupying and terrorizing Pakistani army.
With the desire of making these sorts of hatred and horrible crimes more violent Jamat-e-islami and other right-wing groups with their agents of this country formed the said Peace Committee, and Razakar force as their agents in areas-wards to aid and abet in their crimes according to their conspiracy and pre-conceived plans. Besides it, they formed Al-Badr, Al-Shams, Pioneer Force, and Fouz-e-Elahi combined with non-Bengalis as their private armies. As political groups, leaders of Jamat-e-Islami, Muslim League (3 parts), Nejame Islami Party, PDP helped the occupying forces and Junta Military of Pakistan directly and indirectly in the role of main agents.
With the help of the leaders-activists of political right-wing parties, Pakistani Junta military and their controlled occupying forces formed the said Peace Committee, Razakar, Al-Badr, Al-Shams, and Pioneer forces as private armies in the desire to seize the state power illegally. With the aim to eliminate any strength in the form of supporters, leaders, activists of progressive groups like Bengali-hindu religion based people, believers in the Bangladesh nationalism, Awami League, continued with their plans of torture, rape, setting ablaze, robbing and mass-murder. The proof of their main intentions for their crimes was found in the analysis of political background, in the speeches of the Pakistan’s political and military authorities, narrations, Fort Nightly report, Pakistan Police abstract of Intelligence, Government Gazette, papers, magazines, different gazette officers of Bangladesh, speeches of the statesmen, report of United Nation, Amnesty International alongside with reports of different humanity based organizations, etc. Pakistani terrorizing force supported by the military government of Pakistan, with their allies of this country Peace Committee, Razakar, Al-Badr, Al-Shams, Mujahid force, Fouz-e-Elahi, Civil Pioneer force “didn’t keep the minimum requirements of the rule of war” during Bangladesh’s struggle for independence. Instead, being the believer of one specific religion, of one specific political ideology, being the member of believing people of a special religion, to destroy in part or in whole of that people, killed harmless, unarmed civilians indiscriminately to destroy in part or in whole of that people with the intention of seizing the state power illegally. As a result, almost 30 lakhs of men-women were martyred, almost 4 lakhs of mother-sisters were physically abused in this country, almost 10 million people being homeless and evicted took refuge in neighboring countries and almost 30 million people leaving their homes took refuge in different areas and places inside this country. Even the people of this country being afraid of their lives evicted from their own land and homes. They hid themselves under sun, rain, storm, in bushes, forests and spend their lives like gypsies. Being deprived of clothes, food, home, education, treatment, basic necessities of life passed their days in the fear of uncertain future. Innumerable children, old people, men-women, regardless of all classes freedom-craving people passed their time, arriving at the border of life and death during 9 months of war of independence. Unforgiveable, hated crimes against the international law, humanity, peace, mass-murder, of war, about breakage of Geneva Convention in Bangladesh made its place as a black chapter in world’s history.
Summary of Crimes
That, under the plan of ‘Operation Search Light’, Pakistani army of occupation, with the assistance of their native collaborators, shut the whole Bangladesh. They conducted ruthless torture upon the innocent unarmed people of barricaded Bangladesh. In the mid-night of 25th March, Military force conducted genocide massively in different places including Rajarbagh, Pilkhana, Jagannath Hall and Iqbal Hall of Dhaka University, Hindu majority area of Old Dhaka, Shakharibazar, Ramna Kali Mandir and so on. Over single night, more than 50 thousand Bengali had been slaughtered. Setting fire to houses and business establishments, a loathsome scenario had been created. That black night, not only in Dhaka but also in Chittagong cantonment, East Bengal Regiment had been victimized of attack and a thousand of trainee troops had been murdered. This operation had been designed to demolish the freedom loving people of Bengalis especially the leaders and activists of Awami League and progressive political parties and intellectual society. At the initial point of this operation, in an order to army, General Tikka Khan said, “not the people, I need the land.” The brutality of this operation outweighed that of Halaku Khan, Chengis Kha and even of British General Dyre. In Dhaka, the order of General Tikka Khan was followed literally by Major General Rao Farman Ali and Brigadier Jahanjeb Arbab. During 9 months when Bangladesh was obstructed, Pakistan army had been showed the way to remote villages by their assistant political parties, leaders of Peace Committee and subordinate killer forces. They plundered people’s goods including money, livestock and so on, burned the houses and commercial establishments by setting fire, conducted brutal torture on women, created horror in people’s mind through concealing persons, assassination, abduction, murder, oppression, burning. Over all, turning the obstructed Bangladesh into a shocked country, they forced a crore of Bengali to leave the country and thus to the lifestyle of refugee. Keeping fear of uncertain future, and being dispossessed from their own lands, people inside the country maintained a wandering life. In the hands of Pakistani Attacking force and their accomplices, almost 30 lac Bengali had been killed and 4 lac women had been raped. Being the follower of a particular religion, believer of a particular political ideology and member of an ethnic group, that particular section of people had been targeted to be destroyed in part or whole and this was why the genocide had been conducted. The genocide aimed to grab the state power illicitly. Humanity, manhood felt flat. Human rights had been endangered.